Hazard mitigation is defined as any sustained action taken to reduce or eliminate long-term risk to people and property from natural hazards and their effects. This definition distinguishes actions that have a long-term impact from those that are more closely associated with immediate preparedness, response, and recovery activities. Hazard mitigation is the only phase of emergency management specifically dedicated to breaking the cycle of damage, reconstruction, and repeated damage. Accordingly, States, territories, federally-recognized tribes, and local communities are encouraged to take advantage of funding that HMA programs provide in both the pre- and post-disaster timelines.
Eligible mitigation activities can include: Property Acquisition and Structure Demolition, Property Acquisition and Structure Relocation, Structure Elevation, Mitigation Reconstruction, Dry Floodproofing of Historic Residential Structures, Dry Floodproofing of Non-residential Structures, Generators, Localized Flood Risk Reduction Projects, Non-localized Flood Risk Reduction Projects, Structural Retrofitting of Existing Buildings, Non-structural Retrofitting of Existing Buildings and Facilities, Safe Room Construction, Wind Retrofit for One- and Two-Family Residences, Infrastructure Retrofit, Soil Stabilization, Wildfire Mitigation, Post-Disaster Code Enforcement, Advance Assistance, 5 Percent Initiative Projects, Hazard Mitigation Planning, and Technical Assistance.
DEMA's Mitigation office administers the following federal Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grants:
Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP)
HMGP provides grants to states, local and tribal governments to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures after a major disaster declaration. The purpose of HMGP is to reduce the loss of life and property due to natural disasters and to enable mitigation measures to be implemented during the immediate recovery from a disaster.
HMGP funds become available after most Federally-declared disasters, and are competitively awarded within the declared State. Preference is given to jurisdictions within the impacted areas; however, this does not exclude jurisdictions elsewhere in the State from applying.
PA Mitigation (406)
Post-disaster hazard mitigation opportunities are available under Public Assistance (PA) Mitigation. PA Mitigation funding is available to damaged public facilities and certain private non-profits after a Presidential disaster declaraton. Funding is available for any eligible PA permanent work projects (Category C-G) when PA repair funds are made available through a non-competitive grant process. Check out FEMA's brochure for additional quick facts.
Building Resilient Infrastructure and Communities (BRIC)
The BRIC program guiding principles are supporting communities through capability - and capacity-building; encouraging and enabling innovation; promoting partnerships; enabling large projects; maintaining flexibility; and providing consistency. It provides an opportunity to implement mitigation prior to a disaster. BRIC is an annual, nationally competitive program and funding is based on the previous year's nationwide disaster expenses.
Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA)
The purpose of the FMA grant program is to assist states, local and tribal governments reduce or eliminate the long-term risk of flood damage to buildings, manufactured homes, and other structures insured under the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
The FMA Program is awarded annually (based on the Federal budget) and projects are reviewed and awarded at the national level.